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上記トレードマークの背景地図は、1991年当時の特許登録件数を陸地の大きさと形状に擬態化して、地図状に表現したものです。

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WIPOのマドリードシステムに基づく国際商標出願

特許業務法人HARAKENZO WORLD PATENT & TRADEMARK
平成22年03月23日
(文責:新 井)


1.過去5年間の主要な締約国別出願件数の推移


順位 締約国 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 比率 2008年比
1 Germany (DE) 5,803 5,663 6,090 6,214 4,793 13.6% -22.9%
2 European Union (EM) 1,852 2,445 3,371 3,600 3,710 10.5% 3.1%
3 France (FR) 3,497 3,705 3,930 4,218 3,523 10.0% -16.5%
4 United States of America (US) 2,849 3,148 3,741 3,684 3,201 9.1% -13.1%
5 Switzerland (CH) 2,235 2,468 2,657 2,885 2,671 7.6% -7.4%
6 Benelux (BX) 2,426 2,639 2,510 2,667 1,968 5.6% -26.2%
7 Italy (IT) 2,340 2,958 2,664 2,763 1,872 5.3% -32.2%
8 China (CN) 1,334 1,328 1,444 1,585 1,358 3.9% -14.3%
9 Japan (JP) 893 847 984 1,278 1,312 3.7% 2.7%
10 Russian Federation (RU) 604 622 889 1,190 1,068 3.0% -10.3%
11 Austria (AT) 1191 1117 1134 1,245 1,050 3.0% -15.7%
12 United Kingdom (GB) 1,016 1,054 1,178 1,162 1,008 2.9% -13.3%
13 Australia (AU) 852 1,100 1,169 1,092 1,000 2.8% -8.4%
14 Turkey (TR) 787 733 717 890 792 2.3% -11.0%
15 Spain (ES) 854 994 859 981 688 2.0% -29.9%
16 Denmark (DK) 510 479 573 565 412 1.2% -27.1%
17 Czech Republic (CZ) 547 559 541 607 397 1.1% -34.6%
18 Poland (PL) 334 339 294 416 364 1.0% -12.5%
19 Norway (NO) 235 312 403 368 333 0.9% -9.5%
20 Bulgaria (BG) 391 426 431 386 331 0.9% -14.2%
21 Sweden (SE) 409 400 478 476 314 0.9% -34.0%
22 Slovenia (SI) 180 177 182 296 254 0.7% -14.2%
23 Republic of Korea (KR) 148 190 330 186 249 0.7% 33.9%
24 Finland (FI) 208 239 278 282 245 0.7% -13.1%
25 Hungary (HU) 152 32 438 214 245 0.7% 14.5%
26 Serbia (RS) 107 157 275 282 241 0.7% -14.5%
27 Croatia (HR) 79 217 185 200 235 0.7% 17.5%
28 Singapore (SG) 138 161 146 166 200 0.6% 20.5%
29 Ukraine (UA) 105 133 195 217 188 0.5% -13.4%
30 Slovakia (SK) 215 241 190 187 158 0.4% -15.5%
31 Portugal (PT) 263 276 355 344 135 0.4% -60.8%
32 Latvia (LV) 81 103 115 171 102 0.3% -40.4%
33 Liechtenstein (LI) 96 129 148 169 97 0.3% -42.6%
34 Morocco (MA) 66 119 93 73 62 0.2% -15.1%
35 Greece (GR) 65 150 80 117 57 0.2% -51.3%
36 Lithuania (LT) 101 84 78 93 57 0.2% -38.7%
37 Belarus (BY) 24 23 63 69 54 0.2% -21.7%
38 Monaco (MC) 43 49 89 63 47 0.1% -25.4%
39 Romania (RO) 101 97 103 99 47 0.1% -52.5%
40 Viet Nam (VN) 34 22 31 47 46 0.1% -2.1%
  Other countries 412 536 514 528 311 0.9% -41.1%
  Total 33,577 36,471 39,945 42,075 35,195 100% -16.4%

2.過去5年間の主要締約国別の被指定件数の推移


順位 締約国 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 比率 2008年比
1 China (CN) 13,575 15,801 16,676 17,829 14,766 4.9% -17.2%
2 Russian Federation (RU) 12,813 14,432 15,455 16,768 14,150 4.7% -15.6%
3 United States of America (US) 11,863 13,994 14,618 15,715 13,406 4.4% -14.7%
4 Switzerland (CH) 13,197 14,260 14,528 14,907 13,161 4.3% -11.7%
5 European Union (EM) 6309 10,640 12,744 14,502 12,564 4.1% -13.4%
6 Japan (JP) 10,104 11,844 12,348 12,748 10,386 3.4% -18.5%
7 Australia (AU) 7,989 9,115 9,848 10,529 8,575 2.8% -18.6%
8 Ukraine (UA) 8,271 9,057 9,751 10,635 8,539 2.8% -19.7%
9 Turkey (TR) 8,602 8,958 9,377 9,844 7,942 2.6% -19.3%
10 Republic of Korea (KR) 7,160 8,334 8,988 9,539 7,755 2.6% -18.7%
11 Norway (NO) 8,443 9,102 9,346 9,787 7,627 2.5% -22.1%
12 Croatia (HR) 6,716 6,970 7,059 7,482 5,967 2.0% -20.2%
13 Singapore (SG) 6,127 6,717 7,005 7,607 5,957 2.0% -21.7%
14 Germany (DE) 9,150 8,147 7,184 6,955 5,593 1.8% -19.6%
15 Belarus (BY) 5,401 5,818 6,140 6,724 5,380 1.8% -20.0%
16 Serbia (RS) 0 5,644 5,956 6,315 5,130 1.7% -18.8%
17 France (FR) 8,587 7,495 6,443 6,035 4,735 1.6% -21.5%
18 Italy (IT) 8,817 7,374 6,618 6,171 4,713 1.6% -23.6%
19 United Kingdom (GB) 8,288 7,482 6,502 6,204 4,671 1.5% -24.7%
20 Spain (ES) 8,329 7,231 6,298 5,830 4,264 1.4% -26.9%
21 Viet Nam (VN) 2,639 3,074 4,381 4,966 4,169 1.4% -16.0%
22 Austria (AT) 7,638 6,564 5,928 5,208 4,118 1.4% -20.9%
23 Benelux (BX) 7922 6800 5979 5,463 4,102 1.4% -24.9%
24 Montenegro (ME) 0 0 4,680 5,210 3,920 1.3% -24.8%
25 The F.Y.R. of Macedonia (MK) 4,337 4,261 4,689 4,882 3,774 1.2% -22.7%
26 Bosnia and Herzegovina (BA) 3,797 3,798 3,976 4,041 3,771 1.2% -6.7%
27 Morocco (MA) 3,992 4,229 4,194 4,362 3,762 1.2% -13.8%
28 Poland (PL) 6,825 6,092 5,553 4,815 3,724 1.2% -22.7%
29 Kazakhstan (KZ) 3,099 3,463 4,004 4,331 3,488 1.1% -19.5%
30 Republic of Moldova (MD) 3,500 3,793 4,274 4,346 3,385 1.1% -22.1%
31 Romania (RO) 7,766 8,103 5,649 4,429 3,263 1.1% -26.3%
32 Azerbaijan (AZ) 2231 2,329 3,145 3,801 3,214 1.1% -15.4%
33 Georgia (GE) 2,951 3,347 3,801 3,980 3,154 1.0% -20.8%
34 Czech Republic (CZ) 6,018 5,161 4,546 4,015 3,147 1.0% -21.6%
35 Albania (AL) 2,720 2,882 3,267 3,588 3,060 1.0% -14.7%
36 Liechtenstein (LI) 3,886 3,898 3,713 4,050 3,011 1.0% -25.7%
37 Iran (Islamic Republic of ) (IR) 3,003 3,160 3,352 3,463 3,006 1.0% -13.2%
38 Hungary (HU) 5,914 5,039 4,528 4,052 2,921 1.0% -27.9%
39 Egypt (EG) 2,940 3,201 3,141 3,338 2,816 0.9% -15.6%
40 Monaco (MC) 3792 3876 3,737 3,728 2,762 0.9% -25.9%
  Other Countries 101,828 93,240 91,696 90,700 69,496 22.9% -23.4%
  Total 356,539 364,725 371,117 378,894 303,344 100% -19.9%

Trademarks in Force in the International Register (by December 31, 2009)




以下は、http://www.wipo.int/pressroom/en/articles/2010/article_0006.htmlに記載の抜粋文です。


Global Financial Crisis Hits International Trademark Filings in 2009, Geneva, March 18, 2010, PR/2010/634


International trademark filings under WIPO’s Madrid System for the International Registration of Marks (“the Madrid system”) dropped by 16% in 2009 as a result of the global economic downturn, though increases were observed among some major users of the system, notably the European Union (EU) (3.1%) and Japan (2.7%), as well as in the Republic of Korea (ROK) (+33.9%), Singapore (+20.5%), Croatia (+17.5%) and Hungary (+14.5%).


WIPO received 35,195 international applications under the 84-member Madrid system compared to 42,075 in 2008. Similarly, international trademark registrations were down 12% on 2008 with a total 35,925 international registrations in 2009. Trademark registrations reflect the introduction of new products and services to the market and are sensitive to business cycles. The comparatively smaller decrease (-1.2%) in the renewal of international trademark registrations, compared to 2008, reflects the value of established brands at a time when consumers opt for goods that are tried and trusted. In 2009, 19,234 international trademark renewals were recorded.


“International trademark filings took a hit in 2009,” said WIPO Director General Francis Gurry, “this is not surprising given the difficult financial conditions and restrained consumer demand facing companies around the world. While trademark protection is sound business practice in good times and bad, companies are more cautious about bringing new products to market when economic uncertainty is high. That said, trademarks and the brands they underpin play a key role in value creation and provide the basis for business expansion when the economy recovers.”


Regional and National Filing Trends

The EU accounted for over half of the international applications received – some 21,824 - in 2009. This includes international applications filed through national trademark offices of the countries concerned and those filed through the Office of Harmonization for the Internal Market (OHIM) – applicants from the EU may opt to file through their national office or through OHIM. Some 3,710 international applications were filed through OHIM in 2009 representing a 3.1% increase on figures for 2008.


Marked declines in the filing of international trademark applications were evident in a number of countries in 2009, including the Czech Republic (-34.6%), Sweden (-34%), Italy (‑32.2%), Spain (‑29.9%), Denmark (-27.1%), Benelux (-26.2%), and Germany (-22.9%). Significant decreases were also recorded in international applications received from France (-16.5%), Austria (-15.7%), China (‑14.3%), the United Kingdom (-13.3%), the United States of America (USA) (-13.1%) and the Russian Federation (-10.3%).


However, the filing of international trademark applications rose in a number of countries in 2009 including the EU with a 3.1% increase and Japan with a 2.7% increase. Significant increases were also recorded by the Republic of Korea (+33.9%), Singapore (+20.5%), Croatia (+17.5%) and Hungary (+14.5%).


Among major users, applicants in Germany filed 4,793 international applications, representing 13.6% of the total down 22.9% on 2008. OHIM ranked second with 3,710 international applications reflecting a 3.1% increase on 2008 figures. Applicants in France accounted for 3,523 international applications, representing 10.5% of the total and a decrease of 16.5% compared to 2008. Businesses in the USA filed the fourth largest number of applications, with 3,201 applications or 9.1% of the total and a 13.1 % decrease compared to 2008. Switzerland held its 5th ranking with 2,671 international applications, and a decrease of 7.4 %, followed by the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) with 1,968 international applications representing a decrease of 26.2% compared to 2008.

Top Designated Countries

Madrid Union members were notified of 303,344 new designations (contained in new registrations or territorial extensions) in 2009, representing a 20% decrease compared to 2008 again reflecting the generally flat global economic conditions. When submitting an international trademark application, applicants must designate those member states in which they want their mark to be protected. Applicants can also extend the effects of an international registration to other members at a later date by filing a subsequent designation. In this way, the holder of an international registration can expand the geographical scope of the protection of a mark in line with evolving business needs.


The top six in the ranking of most designated member states remained unchanged. China (with 14,766 designations) continues to be the most designated country, followed by the Russian Federation, USA, Switzerland, the European Union and Japan.


Profile and Costs of Registrations Recorded in 2009

In 2009, on average, about seven Madrid Union members were designated per registration by applicants seeking international trademark protection under the Madrid system. More than half (62%) of these registrations sought protection in five or less export markets.


In submitting a trademark application, an applicant has to specify the goods or services to which the trademark will be applied in accordance with an international classification system known as the “Nice Classification”. The most popular classes of goods and services in international trademark registrations recorded in 2009 were Class 9 (covering, for example, computer hardware and software) representing 8.3% of the total, Class 35 (covering services such as office functions, advertising and business management) which represented 7.1% of the total, Class 42 (covering services provided by for example, scientific, industrial or technological engineers and computer specialists) which represented 5.6% of the total; Class 5 (covering mainly pharmaceuticals and other preparations for medical purposes), Class 25 (covering clothing, footwear and headgear) and Class 41 (covering services in the area of education, training, entertainment, sporting and cultural activities) each represented 4.7% of the total.


In 2009, applicants paid on average 3,408 Swiss francs for an international registration; for 57% of registrations the fees paid were less than 3,000 Swiss francs.


The Madrid system allows for the central administration of an international trademark portfolio, as it provides for procedures which enable trademark holders to record modifications to international registrations (for example, changes of ownership, changes in name or address of the holder or changes in the appointment of the representative of the holder) through the submission of a single request to WIPO. Modifications recorded in 2009 totaled 90,136 representing a 1.3% decrease over 2008.


Active International Registrations

Over half a million (515,562) international registrations were active in the International Register at the end of 2009, containing some 5.6 million active designations and representing a 2.4% increase relative to 2008. These registrations belong to 169,939 right holders who are mostly small and medium-sized enterprises.


Background

The WIPO-administered Madrid System for the International Registration of Marks offers a trademark owner the possibility of having a mark protected in up to 84 countries by filing one application, in one language (English, French or Spanish), with one set of fees, in one currency (Swiss Francs). Applicants wishing to use the Madrid system must apply for trademark protection in a relevant national or regional trademark office before seeking international protection. An international registration under the Madrid system produces the same effects as an application for registration of the mark in each of the contracting parties designated by the applicant. If protection is not refused by the trademark office of a designated contracting party, the status of the mark is the same as if it had been registered by that office. Thereafter, the international registration can be maintained and renewed through a single procedure. Thus, the system provides a cost-effective and efficient way for trademark holders to secure and maintain protection for their marks in multiple countries.


The first international trademark registration dates from 1893 and belonged at that time to Swiss chocolate producer Russ Suchard et Cie, but is no longer in effect. The oldest international trademark registration which is still in effect as a result of multiple renewals, belongs to Swiss watchmaker Longines. This trademark was also first registered in 1893. The international register is located at WIPO’s Geneva headquarters.


Trademarks are a key component of any successful business marketing strategy as they allow companies to identify, promote and license their goods or services in the marketplace and to distinguish them from those of their competitors, and cement customer loyalty. A trademark symbolizes the promise of a quality product and in today’s global and increasingly electronic marketplace, a trademark is often the only way for customers to identify a company’s products and services. Trademark protection hinders moves to “free ride” on the goodwill of a company by using similar distinctive signs to market inferior or similar products or services. Loss, dilution or infringement of a high-value trademark could prove devastating to a business.



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