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TOKYO
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HIROSHIMA
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NOMURA REAL ESTATE HIROSHIMA BLDG. 4 F, 2-23 TATEMACHI, NAKA-KU, HIROSHIMA CITY, HIROSHIMA 730-0032, JAPAN
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Opened on
March.1.2018

NAGOYA
OFFICE

GLOBAL GATE 9F, 4-60-12 HIRAIKE-CHO, NAKAMURA-KU, NAGOYA-SHI, AICHI 453-6109, JAPAN
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In the background of the HARAKENZO trademark is a global map wherein countries/regions are sized according to the number of patents registered there in 1991.

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PCT Support Station

Glossary of terms


  • International Publication
    Publication of claims, description, drawings of an international application (PCT Article 21). The contents of the international application which has been published in the international publication are available on the Web site of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The international publication of an international application is effected by the International Bureau after, in principle, the expiration of 18 months (1 year and 6 months) from the priority date of the application (PCT Article 21(2)(a)).
    For further details, please see International Publication.
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  • International Application
    An application filed under the Patent Cooperate Treaty (PCT) (Article 3 of the PCT). Filing one international application brings about an effect equivalent to an effect brought about by filing applications simultaneously in the contracting states of the PCT.
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  • International Bureau (IB)
    An office which performs tasks concerning management and administration of the Patent Cooperate Treaty (PCT). Main tasks include international publication and transmittal of copies of international applications to each designated Office. The International Bureau may serve as a receiving Office.
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  • International Phase
    A phase which, in general, extends from the filing of an international application to entering it into the national phase of a designated state. In the international phase, the Applicant generally determines, with reference to an international search report and the like, in which of the contracting states to enter an international application into the national phase.
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  • International Search
    Search carried out in order to discover relevant prior art in determining whether or not a claimed invention is novel and involves an inventive step (PCT Articles 15 through 19, for example). The international search is carried out by an International Searching Authority. For further details, please see International Search.
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  • International Searching Authority (ISA)
    An organization that is either a national office or an intergovernmental organization which satisfies certain requirements as to manpower, documentation, etc. and that is appointed by the Assembly of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (PCT Article 16(3) and Rule 36.1). The International Searching Authority carries out an international search, and establishes an international search report and a written opinion of the International Searching Authority. As of July 1, 2012, there are 15 International Searching Authorities including the European Patent Office and the Patent Offices in Japan, the US, and China.
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  • Written Opinion of the International Searching Authority (ISO: International Search Opinion)
    A written opinion as to novelty, inventive step, industrial applicability and the like of the invention claimed in an international application (Rule 43bis.1). The written opinion is established by the International Searching Authority. For further details, please see International Search Opinion.
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  • International Search Report (ISR)
    A document that lists prior art discovered through an international search. The international search report is established by the International Searching Authority, and is transmitted to each designated Office (PCT Article 20 and Rule 47.1). This allows each designated Office to use the international search report in examination of an international application which has been entered into the national phase of that state. For further details, see International Search Report.
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  • International Preliminary Examination
    Examination carried out in order to formulate a preliminary and non-binding opinion on novelty, an inventive step, and industrial applicability of the invention claimed in an international application (PCT Articles 33 to 35, for example). The international preliminary examination is carried out by the International Preliminary Examination Authority upon a request from an Applicant. For further details, please see International Preliminary Examination
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  • International Preliminary Examination Authority (IPEA)
    An organization that is either a national office or an intergovernmental organization which satisfies certain requirements as to manpower, documentation, etc. and that is appointed by the Assembly of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (PCT Articles 16(3) and 32(3) and Rule 36.1). The International Preliminary Examination Authority carries out an international preliminary examination, and establishes a written opinion of the International Preliminary Examination Authority and an international preliminary examination report (PCT Articles 32 through 35, for example).
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  • International Preliminary Examination Report (IPER)
    A document that describes an opinion on novelty, an inventive step, industrial applicability and the like of the invention claimed in an international application (Rule 43bis.1). The international preliminary examination report is established by the International Preliminary Examination Authority (PCT Articles 33 through 36).
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  • Entry into National Phase
    Entry of an international application from the international phase into the national phase of each designated state. In entry into a national phase, the Applicant submits a translation of the international application, as necessary, and pays a fee to a national office (designated Office) of each designated state. It is necessary, in entering an international application into a national phase, to do so within 30 months from the priority date in principle (Articles 22 and 39 of the PCT). For further details, please see Entry into National Phase
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  • National Phase
    In general, a phase into which an international application is entered in each designated state, where examination as to patentability is carried out by an office in that designated state. The Applicant is entitled to an opportunity to amend the claims etc. after entry into a national phase (PCT Articles 28 and 41).
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  • Amendment under Article 34
    Amendment which can be made by an Applicant who has demanded an international preliminary examination by the time an international preliminary examination report is established. The claims, the description, and the drawings can be amended. Since there are no restrictions on how many times amendments can be made, it is possible to make amendments as many time as the Applicant would like by the time an international preliminary examination report is established (Article 34 of the PCT and Rules 66.1(b)).
    For further details, please see Amendment under Article 34
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  • Self Designation
    To designate, as a designated state, a state in which a domestic application (basic application) has been filed that serves as a basis for priority claim of an international application. For example, it is self designation to designate Japan as a designated state for an international application claiming priority claims on a domestic application filed with the Japan Patent Office. The effect of priority claim in a designated state which is designated by self designation is as provided by a law in that state (PCT Article 8(2)(b)). In Japan, such an application is regarded as having been filed claiming domestic priority based on the basic application (PCT Article 41).
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  • Designated Office (DO)
    National office of a designated state. Within 30 months from the priority date, the Applicant submits, to the Designated Office, a translation of an international application (a translation in a language prescribed by each Designated Office), and completes, for example, payment for the national fee so that the international application is entered into the national phase of the designated state.
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  • Designated state
    State designated in the request of an international application as a state in which the Applicant seeks protection of inventions. It should be noted that, for a normal international application, the Applicant is deemed to have designated all the contracting states as designated states (so-called deemed designation of all contracting states). Depending on the contracting state, it may be possible to exclude a contracting state from the designates states.
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  • Amendment under Article 19
    Amendment that can be made by an Applicant who has received an international search report, within 2 month from the data of transmittal of the international search report or 16 months from the priority date, whichever time limit expires later. The Applicant is entitled to one opportunity to amend the claims (PCT Article 19 and Rule 46.1). For further details, please see Amendment under Article 19.
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  • Receiving Office
    Office of a state in which the Applicant resides etc. If the Applicant is Japanese, the Japan Patent Office (JPO) serves as a receiving Office.
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  • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
    A professional organization of the United Nations with a mission to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world. WIPO, which has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, administers the International Bureau (IB) and manages various treaties regarding industrial property rights such as the Paris Convention and the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT).
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  • Elected Office (EO)
    A national office of an elected State. The international preliminary examination report established by the international preliminary examining authority is transmitted to each elected Office via the International Bureau.
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  • Elected State
    A state elected, in a case where the Applicant demands an international preliminary examination, as a state in which the Applicant intends to have the result of the international preliminary examination utilized in the examination in the national phase.
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  • Contracting States
    States which have concluded the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) (PCT Article 1). As of October 2012, there are 146 contracting States including the major powers such as the US, China, European countries, South Korea, and Japan.
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  • Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH)
    A framework which, on the basis of agreements among Patent Offices in more than 2 states, enables an application whose invention has been determined to be patentable in one Paten Office to undergo, upon a request from an Applicant, an accelerated examination in another Patent Office with a simple procedure. The Japan Patent Office carries out the PPH program with the USPTO, the EPO, the SIPO, the KIPO, etc. For further details, please see Patent Prosecution Highway
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  • Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
    A treaty which has been concluded on June 19, 1970 in Washington with the aim of simplifying repeated procedures by an Applicant and examinations by a Patent Office in each state when seeking the protection for the same invention in several states. As of October, 2012, there are 146 PCT contracting States. By filing one international application in accordance with the PCT, the Applicant can obtain an effect equivalent to an effect brought about by simultaneously filing applications in several states. The PCT, which comes under “special agreement” of Article 19 of the Paris Convention, provides unified international procedures which do not contravene the Paris Convention.
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  • International Preliminary Report on Patentability (Chapter Ι)
    A title which is given to a written opinion of the International Searching Authority for an international application which does not undergo an international preliminary examination. The International Bureau issues the report and transmits it to the designated Offices (Rule 44bis.2).
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  • International Preliminary Report on Patentability (Chapter ΙΙ)
    A title which is given to an international preliminary examination report (Rule 70.15). The International Preliminary Examining Authority establishes the report and transmits it to the Applicant and the International Bureau. The International Bureau then transmits the report to an elected Office (PCT Article 36).
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  • Paris Convention (Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property)
    A convention which was signed in 1883 with the aim of protecting industrial properties such as patent right and trademark right. Three basic principles of the Paris Convention are the national treatment, the right of priority and principle of territoriality. The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), which comes under “special agreement” of Article 19 of the Paris Convention, has been established in such an area as not to contravene the provisions of the Paris Convention. As of October, 2008, there are 171 states which have concluded the Paris Treaty (Countries of the Union).
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  • • Unofficial Comment
    A document which the Applicant can submit to the International Bureau in order to argue against a written opinion of the International Searching Authority.
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  • • Supplementary International Search
    A search which is carried out, in addition to the international search, by an International Searching Authority other than the International Searching Authority that was responsible for an international search, upon a request from the Applicant. For further details, please see Supplementary International Search.
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  • • Right of Priority System
    In an international application, a right of priority, except a case of self designation, is treated as provided by the Paris Convention (PCT Article 8(1)(2)(a)). The Paris Convention prescribes that (i) any person who has filed an application for a patent etc. in one of the countries of the Union (country A) enjoys a right of priority during a prescribed period and (i) if an application concerning the same subject is filed in any of the other countries of the Union (countries B) before the expiration of the prescribed period, the application is regarded as an application filed at the time of the filing in country A and treated with priority in determination as to novelty and inventive step (Article 4 of the Paris Convention). For information on the self designation, please see Self Designation
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